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     The meaning of belief in Allaah .

    اذهب الى الأسفل 
    كاتب الموضوعرسالة
    lana
    المدير
    المدير
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    انثى
    عدد الرسائل : 1126
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    Country : مصر
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    المزاج : الحمد الله ممتاز
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    مُساهمةموضوع: The meaning of belief in Allaah .   الخميس نوفمبر 05, 2009 12:07 am

    I have read and heard a great deal about the
    virtues of attaining true belief in Allaah, and I would like you to
    explain to me in detail the meaning of belief in Allaah in a way that
    will help me to attain true faith and to keep away from everything that
    goes against the teachings of our Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings
    of Allaah be upon him) and the way of his companions.




    Praise be to Allaah.



    Faith in Allaah means believing firmly in His
    existence, Lordship and Divinity, and in His names and attributes.



    Faith in Allaah implies four things, whoever
    believes in them is a true believer.



    1 – Belief in the existence of Allaah.



    The existence of Allaah is something
    indicated by reason and by man's innate nature, let alone the large amount of shar’i evidence to that effect.




    (i)
    The evidence of man’s innate nature that Allaah exists: every man
    has been created with an innate belief in his Creator without having to
    first think about it or be taught, and no one deviates from this innate
    nature except the one who has been exposed to misguiding influences.
    Hence the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
    “There is no child who is not born in a state of fitrah (the
    natural inclination of man), but his parents make him a Jew, a
    Christian or a Magian.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1358; Muslim,
    2658.




    (ii)
    The evidence of reason that Allaah exists: all these created things,
    past, present and future, must have a Creator Who brought them into
    existence, because it is not possible for them to have created
    themselves or to have come into existence by accident.



    It
    is impossible for them to have come into existence by themselves
    because a thing cannot create itself: before it existed it was
    non-existent, so how could it be a creator?! And it is impossible for
    them to have come into existence by accident, because everything that
    happens must have a cause. Moreover, this creation is done in a
    wondrous and precise manner, and every created being is in harmony with
    the rest of creation, and there is a strong connection between cause
    and effect. All of this makes it impossible that this universe could
    have come into being accidentally, because what happens accidentally
    does not happen in a precise and perfect manner, so how could it remain
    so precisely balanced?



    If
    it is not possible for these things to have created themselves or to
    have come into existence by accident, then there must be One Who
    brought them into existence, namely Allaah the Lord of the Worlds.



    Allaah has mentioned this rational evidence
    and definitive proof in Soorat al-Toor, where He says (interpretation of the meaning):



    “Were they created by nothing? Or were
    they themselves the creators?”



    [al-Toor 52:35]



    They
    were not created without a Creator, and they did not create themselves,
    so their Creator must be Allaah, may He be blessed and exalted. Hence
    when Jubayr ibn Mut’im heard the Messenger of Allaah (S) reciting
    Soorat al-Toor, and he reached these verses (interpretation of the
    meaning):



    “Were they created by nothing? Or were
    they themselves the creators?



    Or did they create the heavens and the
    earth? Nay, but they have no firm Belief.



    Or are with them the treasures of your
    Lord? Or are they the tyrants with the authority to do as they like?”



    [al-Toor 52:35-37]



    Jabeer
    was a mushrik at that time, and said: “My heart almost soared,
    and that was the first moment that faith entered my heart.”
    Narrated by al-Bukhaari in several places.



    We will give you an example that will help to
    explain that:



    If
    a person were to tell you of a beautiful palace, surrounded by gardens
    among which rivers flowed, filled with furniture and couches, decorated
    with all kinds of luxuries and adornments, and told you that this
    palace and all that it contains created itself, or came into existence
    like that by accident without anyone building it, you would hasten to
    deny that and regard it as a lie, and you would regard this as foolish
    speech. So after that can it be possible that this wondrous, vast and
    well balanced universe with its earth, heavens and stars, could have
    created itself or come into being by accident with no Creator?!



    This
    rational evidence was understood by a Bedouin who lived in the desert
    and who expressed it most eloquently, when he was asked, “How do
    you know your Lord?” He said: “If you see the camel dung
    you know that a camel has passed this way, and if you see a footstep
    you know that a person has passed this way, so the heaven with its
    starts and the earth with its mountain passes and the oceans with their
    high waves all point to the existence of the All-Hearing,
    All-Seeing.”



    2 – Belief in the Lordship of Allaah.



    i.e., belief that He alone is the Lord, with
    no partner or helper.



    The
    Lord (Rabb) is the One Who has the power of creation, dominion
    and control. There is no Creator except Allaah, no Sovereign except
    Allaah, no controller of affairs except Allaah. Allaah says
    (interpretation of the meaning):



    “Surely, His is the creation and
    commandment”



    [al-A’raaf 7:54]



    “Say
    (O Muhammad): ‘Who provides for you from the sky and the earth?
    Or who owns hearing and sight? And who brings out the living from the
    dead and brings out the dead from the living? And who disposes the
    affairs?’ They will say: ‘Allaah.’ Say: ‘Will
    you not then be afraid of Allaah’s punishment (for setting up
    rivals in worship with Allaah)?’”
    [Yoonus 10:31]



    “He manages and regulates (every) affair
    from the heavens to the earth; then it (affair) will go up to Him”



    [al-Sajdah 32:5]



    “Such
    is Allaah, your Lord; His is the kingdom. And those, whom you invoke or
    call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmeer (the thin membrane
    over the date stone)”



    [Faatir 35:13]



    Think about what Allaah says in Soorat
    al-Faatihah (interpretation of the meaning):



    “The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling
    Judge) of the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) [Maaliki Yaawm il-deen]”



    [al-Faatihah 1:4]



    And
    there is an alternative reading, Maliki yawm il-deen. If we
    combine the two readings we will see a wondrous meaning, for the Malik
    (King) has more power and authority than the Maalik (Owner), but a king
    may sometimes be a king in name only, with no control over affairs, in
    which case he is a king but not an owner. But as Allaah is both Malik
    and Maalik, then this is confirmation both of His Sovereignty and His
    control over all affairs.



    3 – Belief in His Divinity



    i.e., that He is the One True God, with no
    partner or associate.



    Al-Ilaah
    (God) means the One Who is loved, i.e., the One Who is worshipped out
    of love and veneration. This is what is meant by Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah
    (there is no god but Allaah), i.e., there is none who is rightfully
    worshipped except Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the
    meaning):



    “And
    your Ilaah (God) is One Ilaah (God — Allaah), Laa Ilaaha illa
    Huwa (there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He), the
    Most Gracious, the Most Merciful”



    [al-Baqarah 2:163]



    “Allaah
    bears witness that Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be
    worshipped but He), and the angels, and those having knowledge (also
    give this witness); (He always) maintains His creation in justice. Laa
    ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the
    All‑Mighty, the All-Wise”



    [Aal ‘Imraan 3:18]



    Everything that is taken as a god alongside
    Allaah and worshipped instead of Him, its divinity is false. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):



    “That
    is because Allaah He is the Truth (the only True God of all that
    exists, Who has no partners or rivals with Him), and what they (the
    polytheists) invoke besides Him, it is Baatil (falsehood). And verily,
    Allaah He is the Most High, the Most Great”



    [al-Hajj 22:62]



    Calling them gods does not give them the
    rights of divinity. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):



    “They are but names which you have named

    you and your fathers
    for which Allaah has sent down no authority”



    [al-Najm 53:23]



    Allaah tells us that Yoosuf (peace be upon
    him) said to the prison guard (interpretation of the meaning):



    “Are many different lords (gods) better or
    Allaah, the One, the Irresistible?



    You do not worship besides Him but only
    names which you have named (forged) — you and your fathers — for which Allaah has sent down no authority”
    [Yoosuf 12:39-40]



    No
    one deserves to be worshipped or singled out for worship except Allaah,
    and no one has any share in this right with Him, no angel who is close
    to Him nor any Prophet who was sent. Hence the call of all the
    Messengers, from the first to the last of them, was the call to say Laa
    ilaaha ill-Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):



    “And
    We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad) but We revealed
    to him (saying): Laa ilaaha illa Ana [none has the right to be
    worshipped but I (Allaah)], so worship Me (Alone and none else)”



    [al-Anbiya’ 21:35]



    “And
    verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger
    (proclaiming): “Worship Allaah (Alone), and avoid (or keep away
    from) Taaghoot (all false deities, i.e. do not worship Taaghoot besides
    Allaah)”
    [al-Nahl 16:36]



    But the mushrikeen rejected that and took
    other gods instead of Allaah, which they worshipped alongside Allaah, seeking their support and help.



    4 – Belief in His Names and Attributes.



    i.e.,
    affirming the names and attributes which Allaah has affirmed for
    Himself in His Book and in the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace and
    blessings of Allaah be upon him) in a manner that befits Him, without
    distorting or denying the meanings, or asking how, or likening Him to
    His creation. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):



    “And
    (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allaah, so call on Him by
    them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter
    impious speech against) His Names. They will be requited for what they
    used to do”



    [al-A’raaf 7:180]



    This verse indicates that the Most Beautiful
    names belong to Allaah.



    And Allaah says (interpretation of the
    meaning):



    “His
    is the highest description (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped
    but He, and there is nothing comparable unto Him) in the heavens and in
    the earth. And He is the All‑Mighty, the All‑Wise”



    [al-Room 30:27]



    This
    verse indicates that the attributes of perfection belong to Allaah,
    because “the highest description” is the attribute of
    perfection. These two verses prove that the most beautiful Names and
    the most sublime attributes belong to Allaah in general terms. With
    regard to the details of that, there is a great deal of information in
    the Qur’aan and Sunnah.



    This
    field of knowledge, i.e., the names and attributes of Allaah, is one of
    the fields in which there has been a great deal of dispute and division
    among the ummah, and the ummah has split into various factions
    regarding the names and attributes of Allaah.



    Our attitude towards these differences is
    that enjoined by Allaah when He said (interpretation of the meaning):



    “(And) if you differ in anything amongst
    yourselves, refer it to Allaah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allaah and in the Last Day”



    [al-Nisa’ 4:59]



    We
    refer this dispute to the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His
    Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), seeking guidance
    therein from the way in which the righteous salaf, the Sahaabah and
    Taabi’een, understood these verses and ahaadeeth, for they are
    the most knowledgeable of this ummah as to what Allaah and His
    Messenger meant. ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood spoke the truth
    when he described the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of
    Allaah be upon him) by saying: “Whoever wants to follow a path,
    let him follow the path of one who has died, for there is no guarantee
    that the one who is still alive will not be tempted. Those are the
    companions of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), the
    most pure in heart of this ummah and the most deep in knowledge,
    the least sophisticated and complicated, people whom Allaah chose to
    establish His religion and accompany His Prophet. So acknowledge their
    rights and adhere to their guidance, for they are following true
    guidance.”
    Everyone who deviates from the path of the salaf in this matter is
    erring and going astray, and is following a path other than that of the
    believers, so he deserves the warning issued in the verse where Allaah
    says (interpretation of the meaning):



    “And
    whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger (Muhammad) after the
    right path has been shown clearly to him, and follows other than the
    believers’ way, We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and
    burn him in Hell — what an evil destination!”



    [al-Nisa’ 4:115]



    Allaah
    has stipulated that in order to be correctly guided, we must believe
    what the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be
    upon him) believed, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):



    “So if they believe in the like of that which
    you believe then they are rightly guided”



    [al-Baqarah 2:137]



    Everyone who deviates and wanders far from
    the path of the salaf is lacking in guidance to the extent that he strays from the path of the salaf.



    Based
    on this, then what we must do in this case is to affirm what Allaah has
    affirmed for Himself or what His Messenger (peace and blessings of
    Allaah be upon him) has affirmed of the divine names and attributes; we
    should take the texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah at face value,
    and believe in them as the companions of the Prophet (peace and
    blessings of Allaah be upon him) did, as they are the best and most
    knowledgeable of this ummah (may Allaah be pleased with them).



    But
    it should be noted that there are four things to be avoided, whoever
    falls into one of them has not attained true belief in the names and
    attributes of Allaah as he is obliged to do. Belief in the names and
    attributes of Allaah is not correct unless one avoids these four
    things, which are: tahreef (distortion), ta’teel (denial),
    tamtheel (likening Allaah to His creation) and takyeef (asking or
    discussing how).



    Hence
    we say that what is meant by belief in the names and attributes of
    Allaah is “affirming the names and attributes which Allaah has
    affirmed for Himself in His Book and in the Sunnah of His Messenger
    (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in a manner that befits
    Him, without distorting or denying the meanings, or asking how, or
    likening Him to His creation.”



    There follows a brief explanation of these
    four things that are to be avoided:




    (i)
    Tahreef (distorting)



    What
    is meant is changing the meaning of the texts of the Qur’aan and
    Sunnah from their true meaning, which means affirming that the most
    beautiful names and sublime attributes belong to Allaah, to another
    meaning which was not intended by Allaah or His Messenger (peace and
    blessings of Allaah be upon him).



    For example:



    They distort the meaning of the Hand of
    Allaah which is mentioned in many texts and say that it refers to His blessing or power.




    (ii)
    Ta’teel (denying)



    What is meant is denying the beautiful names
    and sublime attributes and saying that Allaah does not possess them or some of them.



    Everyone
    who denies one of the names or attributes of Allaah that are proven in
    the Qur’aan or Sunnah does not truly believe in the names and
    attributes of Allaah.




    (iii)
    Tamtheel (likening Allaah to His creation)



    This
    means likening the attribute of Allaah to the attribute of a human
    being, such as saying that Allaah’s Hand is like a man’s
    hand, or that Allaah hears as a man hears, or that Allaah rose over the
    Throne like a man sitting on a chair… and so on. Undoubtedly
    likening the attributes of Allaah to the attributes of His creation is
    wrong and false. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):



    “There is nothing like Him, and He is the
    All‑Hearer, the All‑Seer”



    [al-Shoora 42:11]




    (iv)
    Takyeef (discussing how)



    This means discussing how the attributes of
    Allaah are, whereby a person tries to imagine or put into words how the attributes of Allaah are.



    This is definitely invalid, and man cannot
    know this. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):



    “but they will never compass anything of
    His Knowledge”



    [Ta-Ha 20:110]



    Whoever attains these four things believes
    truly in Allaah.



    We ask Allaah to make us steadfast in faith
    and cause us to die therein.



    And Allaah knows best.


    See Risaalat Sharh Usool al-Eemaan by
    Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen.

    _________________

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